Cognition and Learning

Week 1: Introduction to the

Cognition and learning is one of the branches in cognitive science field with the common goal of studying the human mind. Besides, there are many other multidisciplinary areas such as psychology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, anthropology, education, linguistics, and computer science. The cognitive revolution is start by Epistemology which is Philosophy of mind, then Introspection field, followed by Behaviorism and lastly a new born field of the science of mind (Cognitive Science ). Cognitive Learning is a term that is often used in the academic arena. Generally, it is a study about how to learn, identify the best technique to improve our skills in study and the process to gain the knowledge. For me this subject is interesting and makes me keep wondering about how to enhance human ability to store the information in the best way. Is it depending on someone ability or the right technique and skills can guide us to study more effectively?

But what does it mean? Cognition is refers to all processes by which sensory inputs transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. While, Learning is a process gaining a new knowledge and skills that have to be integrate with existing knowledge in long-term memory Called encoding. How people learn? Information processing is through the channels such as visual, auditory, and hepatic. Working memory is a limited capacity memory device, learning a new knowledge and skills in working memory have to integrate with existing knowledge in long-term memory called encoding process. Active processing in working memory is called rehearsal. While, Retrieve skills from long-term memory back into working memory is known as retrieval. All this process helps people in order to learn and gain the knowledge more easily

Cognitive learning is about enabling people to learn by using their reason, intuition and perception. This technique is often used to change people’s behavior. However, people’s behavior is influence by many factors such as culture, upbringing, education and motivation. Therefore, cognitive learning involves understanding how these factors influence behavior and then using this information to develop learning programmers.  There are similarities between computer and the human memory, which are including basic three steps (Encoding, storage, retrieval). All of this are involve in short term memory, working memory, long-term memory, and these process will take part on how we organize the information to remember and understand about something Information processing theory says that Computer is the metaphor for the human cognition for example, human memory. However, Computer is not identical to the human memory. There are also many differences between this two. Self is associated with metaphysical mind, which in turn is associated with physical body and soul including memory of course. This soul not only evaluates, enjoys the individual existence of self but also makes various internal and external body functions of a person possible. Contrary to this, various systems in computer are run by electricity and electrons flow while computer user only enjoys the computer functioning. Our understanding is drive by theories and experiences.

Theories provide conceptual framework to explain the data we have collected and it is a part of Science of learning. There is a science of how we perceive, remember, plan, learn, and reason. Scientific work encompasses a broad range of cognitive and neuroscience issues in learning, memory, language, and cognitive development.

Week 2: Human Memory

In psychology, memory is an organism’s mental ability to store, retain and recall information. There are generally three types of memory, which are, sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. The information of processing system starts when we accept the sensory input such as new information. Incoming sensory input (information) from the environment remains briefly before “decaying” and becomes completely lost. Sensory memory act to hold information just long enough for some of it to be select for further processing in working memory (or short-term memory, STM). Attention and pattern recognition enhance the memory to generate at STM. STM will receive input from sensory memory and long-term memory. The capacity of STM is limited and retains information briefly (almost 30 seconds) .By elaborating and encoding the input we can generate the information to the long-term memory(LTM).LTM is the place for storing large amounts of information for indefinite periods of time. The capacity is large and it is permanently in duration. Retrieval is the process of locating information that has been previously stored in LTM. It involves process of recall and recognition the information. When we enhance our practice, such as elaborate and organize idea the information that stored in LTM will remain lasting. Elaborating is the process of connecting new material to information or ideas already in the learner’s mind.  With more elaborative processing, it will results in better memory. Organize is make the ordered and logical network of relations. Material that is well organized is easier to learn and understand. All the process that involved are adhere with our ability to think more and generate neuron and produce idea that remain as memory.

Do you know why do we forget?  Memory is always decaying over time. This is occurring when information are failure to encode, retrieve and making interference with other events. Perception and attention are critical to select and organize information in sensory memory for further processing. The meaning we attach to the raw information received through our senses is called perception while, attention is when we give a concern interest on something. Selective attention is depends on number and similarity of source. Number of source is effect when we need to pay attention on many distractions, such as it is hard to pay attention to five people talking than it is to one person. Similarity of sources is occur such as when some people find that they can study well with instrumental music but not vocal music. Problems with selective attention can cause failure to learn effectively. Automatic processes is require not much allocation of attention and can be executed in parallel with other cognitive processes. It is acquired only through extended practice. For example, writing and speaking in English. The initial effort is extensive, may have to learn with the dictionary by your side.


~ by penawarsyifaa on January 24, 2010.

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